Patients with end-stage HF can experience many and varied symptoms and features including, but not limited to:
- Loss of appetite
- Anxiety, depression
- Renal failure
- Sleep difficulties
It is important to review these symptoms and the response to any management plan at each interaction with the patient and family.
Through prevention and relief of suffering, palliation aims to improve the quality of life of patients and their families facing problems associated with life threatening illness. This includes early identification and management of physical, psychosocial and spiritual concerns.
Ongoing, open, direct and compassionate discussions can ease fears about pain, losing dignity, abandonment and the unknown. Discussions about end of life issues should be frequently revisited.